Using variables in Javascript - a very brief explanation

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Let's see how to use variables in Javascript.

[Figure 1 - Variable declaration keywords]

flowchart LR let["let (mutable)"] const["const (immutable)"] subgraph ES6["ES6 (ECMAScript 2015)"] let const end var --> let var --> const
  • Since ES6, var has been improved to let and const.
  • var - a variable that can be declared as a function or a global scope, which is the way variables were declared before ES6.
  • let, const - variables that can be declared as block scoped, which was added in ES6. In the case of const, the value cannot be changed after declaration and initialisation.


This is how all declarations (variables, functions, classes) are moved to the top of the pre-execution scope and behave as if they were declared there.

Variable hoisting behaviour:

  • var - is automatically initialised to undefined when hosted (i.e. there is no Temporal Dead Zone).
  • The let and const are hoisted, but they are not automatically initialised, so there is no effect of hoisting due to the Temporal Dead Zone. (i.e. don't bother)

In the case of let and const, the declaration is moved to the top by hoisting, but there is a Temporal Dead Zone where the variable cannot be referenced until the statement where the let and const were originally declared (where it is initialised), and a ReferenceError is thrown if the variable is referenced.

console.log(a); var a; a = 42; // undefined
console.log(b); let b; b = 42; //ReferenceError: b is not defined
console.log(c); const c = 42; //ReferenceError: c is not defined

let, const are scoped and applied on a block basis

let a = 10;
{ // new block scope
  //console.log(a); // ReferenceError: Cannot access 'a' before initialization
  let a = 20;
  console.log(a); // 20
console.log(a); // 10


  • Use const, and only use let if you need to change the value in the middle.
  • When reading code that uses var, be aware of variable hosting and variable scoping